Turtle Bunbury

Writer and Historian

 
Random Quote
Random Date
 

3. THE SEA YEARS , PART ONE (1812-1829)

image title

The Repulse, an East Indiaman,
from 1820. William would have
been familiar with this ship.

Midshipman McClintock (circa 1812)

We don't yet have any concrete information as to why William McClintock joined the Royal Navy.The necessary 'interest' may well have been through his stepmother's third brother, William Le Poer Trench (1771 - 14th August 1846), who had gained the rank of Captain in the Royal Navy in April 1802. William Trench went on to become a Rear Admiral. (14) During her intermittent wars with France, Spain and Holland and the USA from 1793 and 1815, it may fairly be said to have established the claim that 'Britannia rules the waves'. Yet again, the sons of Ireland were foremost in the ranks. By sons of Ireland, I mean men born and raised in Ireland, whether their bloodline origin was Irish, Scottish, English or otherwise.

In his article "The Irish Sea-Officers of the Royal Navy, 1793-1815", first published in "The Irish Sword" in 1999, Anthony G. Brown lists '650 sea-officers, Irish by birth, family or marriage, who served during the intermittent wars with France, Spain and Holland and the USA that were fought between 1793 and 1815, a time that may fairly be said to have established the claim that ?Britannia rules the waves.?"

"For example", continues A.G. Brown, "the highest service rank was Admiral of the Fleet and during the period in question this position - in truth rather more honorific than active - was held successively by four men, the Hon. John Forbes, Lord Howe, Sir Peter Parker and HRH Prince William, Duke of Clarence; all appear in the list below, the first three Irish by birth or family, the last a man with the strongest, if somewhat irregular, Irish connections. Nor will readers be surprised that some of the most famous and dashing names in naval history appear: Pakenham, Seymour, Blackwood, Drury, Fitton, various O?Briens, and Troubridge, an officer thought by the Earl of St. Vincent to be Nelson?s equal. As well as individual officers of great note, there are also some remarkable family groupings: the Rowleys, Moriartys, Graves?s, Digbys, Gardners, Gores, Stopfords and Jones?s amongst them. In connections through marriage, the ladies of the Dawson and Blennerhasset families deserve their own chapter in the social history of the Navy! "

As William IV, Clarence had somewhat irregular Irish connections through his twenty year affair with Irish actress, Dorothea Bland, better known by her stage name, Mrs. Jordan.

Among William's sea-faring cousins were the afore-mentioned Rear Admiral William de la Poer Trench (1771-1846), Admiral Sir Josias Rowley, Admiral Sir Samuel Campbell Rowley and Commander William Power Cobbe (1790-1831). Through his paternal grandmother, Catherine Campbell, the Bunburys were also closely related to the Dawsons. Another cousin, Lieutenant George Benjamin Isaac Bunbury of Co. Down, also joined the Royal Navy in 1812. (14b)

In June 1812, Napoleon's Grande Armee advanced on its doomed March on Moscow. As historian Hugh Gough (no relation to the Field Marshal!) observed in an email to me in June 2015, 'All figures are approximate as on the Russian campaign, for example, there were lots of desertions. But of the c650,000 in the Russian invasion about 200,000 came from French territory pre the 1792 expansion. A further 100,000 (from memory) from territory subsequently annexed and the rest from German, Italian, Polish etc. 'allies'. Quite how you can impose order on that heterogeneous number I don't know.' Hugh also put the death toll of the entire Napoleonic wars at between 3.5-6 million. It is also to be noted that historian Patrick Geoghegan pointed out that in about October 1813, Daniel O'Connell offered to create an army of 100,000 Catholics who would fight for Britian if Peel emancipated the Catholics.

It should also be noted that in 1813, the East India Company lost its monopoly over trade with India; it retained its China monopoly for a further twenty years.

image title

Admiral Sir Josias Rowley
(1765 - 1842) was one of the
leading lights of the Royal Navy
during the Napoleonic Wars. As
cousin to the Bunburys, he may
have inspired the young William
McClintock Bunbury to take to
the seas. The Admiral's portrait is
by Sir Andrew Morton.

When William entered the Navy in the summer of 1813, he had just turned 13 years old. This was not a particularly young age; Nelson joined aged 12 and some were as young as 8 or 9. Another boy who entered in William's year was the 14 year old future Admiral Sir Edward Belcher (1799-1877) who would later command Samarang. The advantage of joining at such an age was that even a 22 year old had a decade's practical experience behind him and would be entirely familiar with sextants and guidance by stars. 1813 was probably a good time to be on a boat and away from Britain. 1812 is generally judged to have been the worst year ever in British history. Britain was locked into its tenth year of war with Napoleon. Anti-industrialist Luddites were rampaging the country, wrecking all the new-fangled machines in a bid to protect jobs. Taxes were high, prices inflated and revolt widespread. Appalling harvests had driven the cost of a loaf to its highest ever level. Spencer Perceval became the only Prime Minister to be assassinated when shot dead in the House of Commons. the government was bereft of leadership. The unpopular Prince Regent – famed for his money-burning love of the high life – claimed power from his mentally unstable father, King George III. And further humiliation came when the USA, Britain's former colony, declared war and inflicted crushing several naval defeats on the power who claimed to “rule the waves”.

With the Ajax to St Sebastian 1814

William entered the Navy in July 1813 as a first class volunteer on HMS Ajax, under Captain Robert Waller Otway. The ship was a 74-gun third rate ship of the line, launched in 1809 after its predecessor, a veteran of Trafalgar, was accidentally burned. Ajax almost immediately despatched to join the Channel fleet. That winter, the ship was employed along the coast of Spain, assisting land troops during the Siege of St Sebastian. On 17th March 1814, William saw his first action while on board the Ajax with George Mundy, during which they captured L'Alycon, a French national corvette of 16 guns and 120 men. William was then 'employed for a short time on the American coast' but in what capacity we do not know. Towards the close 1814, he sailed for the Cape of Good Hope on the Atlantic coast of South Africa with Captain Peter Rainier in the Niger 38.

Midshipman William McClintock's 1815 - 1822

In early 1815, William quit the Niger and, until his promotion to Lieutenant on 12th September 1822, served on the Home, Mediterranean, Brazillian and Newfoundland stations, chiefly as Midshipman, in the Pactolus 38 and Severn 40 (both commanded by Capt. Hon. Frederick William Aylmer), Britomart (a sloop, under Captain Hon. George Joseph Perceval - a relation of the Prime Minister?), Favorite 20 (under Captain Hercules Robinson), Grasshopper (a sloop, under Captain David Buchan), the Queen Charlotte 100 (bearing the flag of Sir James Hawkins Whitshed) and the Apollo and Royal George yachts, each under the orders of the Hon. Sir Charles Paget, whose son would later command the Samarang.

As such, he may well have been at sea when the Mount Tambora volcano erupted in Indonesia in April 1815, leading to the long and miserable 'Year Without a Summer' in which many crops failed and the sun did not appear. In Ireland, the effect was to bring about a famine which, coupled with an outbreak of typhus, left somewhere between 100,000 and 150,000 dead over the next three years. William cannot but have been impressed by the effects of the volcanic ash on the sunsets and sunrises, as so dramatically captured on canvas by Turner.

SIR HENRY BUNBURY & NAPOLEON

On 15 July 1815, a month after the Duke of Wellington's victory at Waterloo, Napoleon surrendered to the British, handing himself over to Captain Maitland of the Bellerophon on the coast of Brittany. (15) The job of informing Napoleon he was to be incarcerated on the faraway rock of St Helena (rather than a nice estate in the Home Counties, as my brother Andrew put it) fell to Sir Henry Bunbury, a distant cousin, who served as Under-Secretary of State for War and the Colonies from 1809-16. Sir Henry had to go to Plymouth (I think) where Napoleon had a tantrum, correctly predicting that he wouldn't survive long on St Helena. It may have been at this moment that the fallen Emperor was parted from his spectacles which Sir Henry scooped up .. Or perhaps, as Mathew Forde proposed, it was the theft of his glasses that prompted the tantrum! 'I wonder what his thinking was with the specs?', asks Mathew. 'A rather curious gift. Perhaps he just handed them to your relly thinking he couldn't possibly be reading the map correctly - heading to some spec in the southern ocean - and he simply forgot to return them!' In any event, the Emperor's spectacles would appear on an episode of the Antiques Roadshow nearly two centuries later. On 7th August 1815 Napoleon was sent on the 4,000 mile journey to St Helena aboard HMS Northumberland.

FOOTNOTES

(14) Rear-Admiral William Le Poer Trench was born on 4 July 1771.1 He was the son of William Power Keating Trench, 1st Earl of Clancarty and Anne Gardiner.1 He married, firstly, Sarah Cuppage, daughter of John Loftus Cuppage, in 1800, by whom he had, with others, two sons, the Rev. William Trench, Rector of Moylough, and the Rev. John le Poer Trench. He married on 1 February 1837, secondly, Margaret Downing, daughter of Dawson Downing and Anne Boyd, by whom he had a son, Frederick Netterville Trench, and a daughter, Harriette. Admiral Trench died on 14 August 1846 at age 75. When the Ballinasloe Town Commissioners came into being on February 22, 1841, by order of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Rear-Admiral William Le Poer Trench was in the chair for the first meeting at Craig's Hotel. Other members included Father Laurence Dillon, P.P.; Rev. Mr. Travers Jones, and representatives of the professional and business interests in the town. Their first responsibility was the public lighting and a gasworks was immediately erected at a cost of £1,421. (P. K. Egan, Ballinasloe: A Historical Sketch, Ballinasloe (Ballinasloe Tóstal Council), 1953.)

(14b) In The Irish Sea-Officers of the Royal Navy, 1793-1815, A.G. Brown has noted that "the largest single source used for this article is the 1849 edition of William O'Byrne's Naval Biographical Dictionary. This gives quite extensive details of every sea-officer of the rank of Lieutenant or above who was alive at approximately his date of publication. Many of the entries also mention deceased family members who had served in the RN. John Marshall?'s somewhat similar, though earlier, Royal Naval Biography of 1829-35 deals with living officers of the rank of Commander and above, again with many details of deceased relatives."

(15) "A week later the warship sailed into the small port of Brixham in Devon. The people of Brixham were the first in Britain to discover that the country's greatest enemy had been captured. Sitting on the quay [of Brixham] were three schoolboys, John Smart and Charlie and Dick Puddlecombe. They had been given an extra week's holiday to celebrate the victory. To their generation Napoleon was 'Boney': 'Limb from limb he'll tear you, just as pussy tears a mouse', parents sang to children who refused to go to sleep. As soon as the Bellerophon anchored, the three boys joined a local baker rowing out with fresh loaves of bread to sell to the sailors but an officer shouted: 'Sheer off. No boats allowed here ... if you don't let go I'll sink you'. As they rowed away, however, a sailor in one of the lower gun ports dropped a small black bottle into the water. Inside was a piece of paper bearing the words: 'We have got Bonaparte on board.' From 'Napoleon's Last Journey', Christopher Woodward; History Today, Vol. 55, July 2005

image title

Above: William McClintock Bunbury saw his first action when a 16 year old
Midshipman on board HMS Severn during the Bombardment of Algiers. Algiers
would be where his daughter-in-law Kate Bunbury, 2nd Lady Rathdonnell,
passed away in 1925.

Bombardment of Algiers 1816

The next major action that William witnessed was as a Midshipman on board the 40-gun frigate, HMS Severn, during the Bombardment of Algiers on August 27th 1816. The bombardment was part of an Anglo-Dutch attempt to end the slavery practices of the Dey of Algiers, a former ally from the Napoleonic Wars. The expedition's specific aim was to free Christian slaves and to stop the Algerian's common practice of enslaving Europeans. In early 1816, Admiral Lord Exmouth undertook a diplomatic mission, backed by a small squadron of ships of the line to Tunis, Tripoli, and Algiers to convince the Deys to stop the practice and free the Christian slaves. The Deys of Tunis and Tripoli agreed without any resistance, but the Dey of Algiers was more recalcitrant and the negotiations were stormy. Exmouth believed he had negotiated a treaty to stop the slavery of Christians and returned to England. However, hardly had he turned his back when Algerian troops suddenly massacred 200 Corsican, Sicilian and Sardinian fishermen who were under British protection. Britain was outraged and Exmouth's expedition was deemed a failure. He was duly ordered back to sea again to complete the job and punish the Algerians. HMS Severn was one of the five ships of the line Exmouth duly gathered for the purpose. The 50-gun HMS Leander anchored off the north of the harbour and bombed the hell out of Algiers. HMS Severn's role was to simply sail inshore, along with HMS Glasgow, and pound the Algerian shore battery so that it couldn't attack the Leander. Nonetheless, casualties on the British side were very heavy with 16% killed or wounded. The Severn lost three dead and 34 wounded. The Dey of Algiers agreed to free around 3,000 slaves following the bombardment and signed a treaty against the slavery of Europeans. Inevitably, the cessation of slavery did not last. (16)

Footnote
(16) William was not the only McClintock to serve at the battle. His cousin, Henry McClintock, son of William McClintock of Prospect Hill, near Londonderry, served as a cadet on HMS Queen Charlotte, a 104-gun first-rate ship of the line. The ship was Lord Exmouth's flagship during the Bombardment of Algiers. Lord Exmouth subsequently wrote to Henry's father explaining how the boy was the only officer I have made out of a hundred and fifty candidates. 'It is not a compliment, I assure you', wrote the Admiral, 'to say that your boy deserves his promotion. He fought for it in a very gallant style, and had your eye been fixed on him as mine was, when he went with the first Lieutenant to board and fire the nearest Algerine Frigate, your heart would have acknowledged him for your son, and leaped with joy, as mine did, when I saw him safe on board again. He is a lucky dog to have served his time and passed only three days before we got into the scrape. He is a good boy, full of honour and principle, mild and meek in his manners, and courageous in the fight, added to which he knows his duty well, and will be an excellent officer. I bespeak his services under my flag, if it ever flies again; but you and I are grown old, musty old fellows, myself 'Blanchier sur l'harnois.' You will not be sorry it was a Freeman of Derry who opened the Dungeons of Algiers and gave freedom to thousands. Indeed my dear Willy, all the actions of my life are nothing to the satisfaction I feel in being an humble instrument in the hands of God for the attainment of so much good. To all and any of your sisters alive, present me affectionately and believe me, as I have always been, your sincerely affectionate and attached friend, Exmouth'. See: The Life of Admiral Viscount Exmouth, by William Osler, 1841.
It is assumed that Henry McClintock was the man referenced in a letter written by George Grey (1799-1882) to his sister Mary Grey from Charleville to Portsmouth Dockyard on12.09.1821, viz. 'McClintock has so many friends in Ireland that he seems quite at a loss to decide which to visit first so that our plans have been frequently changed already; but we have passed our time quite pleasantly. .... Lady Monck is kept in Dublin with one of her daughters who is unwell, but Lady Harriett Osborn and Lady Louisa Trench, two of her sisters, are here. ...... McClintock is quite rejoiced at being in Ireland and dreads the thought of going back the Queen Charlotte. He desires me to send his love to all.'
There are a couple of other McClintock references in the Grey archive that probably refer to Henry. The first, dated 14 April 1821; “I was surprised to hear of McClintock being in the Queen Charlotte as when I was at home he was going in the Grasshopper but as he seemed to have very little pleasure in the anticipation of a second winter at Newfoundland I dare say he would not be unwilling to change.”[Was Lord Exmouth’s Queen Charlotte later used in connection with Newfoundland, or is this a later vessel? The second letter, written 24 March 1824 from Southampton Row, after Grey's sister Mary married Thomas Monck Mason (as the latter's second wife; by his first wife Florida de Burgh, Monck Mason had a daughter, Florida, who later married Catesby Paget). “I sent the inkstand off by the mail to Holyhead to meet McClintock and I hope he found it there and has conveyed it safely to you and that it is by this time ornamenting your room in Enniskerry.” Monck Mason was involved in the establishment of floating chapels for the religious education of sailors. They were also tied up with the Wilberforces and the evangelists. Mary and her mother, Lady Mary Grey, were heavily involved in the establishment of schools in Portsmouth for the children of the poor (sailors?) along with various other charitable organisations.
(With thanks to Vicki Pattinson).

MURDER AT WILDGOOSE LODGE

On the night of 29-30 October 1816 eight people were deliberately burned to death in a vengeance killing house in a remote part of County Louth, known locally as Wildgoose Lodge, the property of William Filgate of Lisrenny, including the Catholic flaxgrower Edward Lynch and a 5 month old baby… in consequence of which 18 local men were executed. Read about it in Terence Dooley’s book: ‘The Murders at Wildgoose Lodge.’ William's uncle Henry McClintock, a member of the yeomanry, attended the trials out of curiosity and recorded in his journal: 'Wednesday 23rd July 1817 - Very fine day – I attended a yeomanry parade at eight O Clock in the morning and at ten we escorted a prisoner Patrick Devan to Wildgoose Lodge Reaghstown in this County where he was hanged inside the walls of WildGoose lodge from a board that was placed on the two chimneys of the house-his crime was being the commander of a party of near a hundred men who on the night of October 31 had set fire to Wildgoose Lodge and burned eight people in it –men women and children –he fully confessed his guilt on the gallows-after he was hanged his body was put into iron chains and conveyed to Corcria and hung there on a gibbet –Corcria was his native place and a party of soldiers are stationed there which will prevent the gibbet being taken down.This Devan was a schoolmaster and clerk to the popish chapel at Stonetown very near Corcria –this chapel was the place where he and his associates met at night to plan their diabolical act-almost every gentleman in the county attended the execution.'
October 11th 1818 "Morning Fine , day wet ……..then Bessy and I rode to Hackballscross and saw three gibbets there of men executed for the burning of the Wildgoose Lodge. We got wet to the skin and rode there and home in under an hour and a half-Surgeon Noble and his son Wm Dined with us."

1817 Events

· The 2nd 87th battalion (with Sir Hugh Gough in command) is disbanded at Colchester on 1st Feb and Gough goes on half-pay until 1819. (17)
· The end of the Napoleonic wars was followed by a n economic crash, the collapse of the local weaving trade in Ireland, unpayable rents, mass evictions and threatened famine. The economic crisis affects Irish agriculture and leads to famine. O'Connell's popularity rising with his denunciation of the tithes which Catholics were required by law to pay towards the upkeep of the Church of Ireland and which they resented bitterly.
· Some 15,000 die in Ireland from typhus.
· Parkinson describes disease named after him.

Footnote
(17) Cannon, Historical Records, 87th Fusiliers.

John McClintock in Halifax

On 13th May 1818, William's brother, John McClintock Junior (later 1st Baron Rathdonnell) set out for Halifax, Nova Scotia, as an officer in 74th Foot (Highland) Regiment. He served in North America until 1821. (18) It is not clear when John actually joined the 74th. The regiment had served keenly during the Napoleonic War but was then stationed in Ireland from June 1814 until May 1818, so it did not have the chance of distinguishing itself at the crowning victory of Waterloo. (It was on its way to embark for Belgium when news of that decisive battle arrived). While at Fermoy, on 6th April 1818, the regiment was presented with new colours. The colours which had waved over the regiment in many a hard-fought field, and which had been received in 1802, were burned, and the ashes deposited in the lid of a gold sarcophagus snuff-box, inlaid with part of the wood of the colour-staves, on which the following inscription was engraved:—"This box, composed of the old standards of the Seventy-fourth regiment, was formed as a tribute of respect to the memory of those who fell, and of esteem for those who survived the many glorious and arduous services on which they were always victoriously carried, during a period of sixteen years, in India, the Peninsula, and France. They were presented to the regiment at Wallajahbad in 1802, and the shattered remains were burned at Fermoy on the 6th of April 1818." John McClintock and the 74th embarked at Cork for Halifax on 13th May, leaving one depôt company, which was sent to the Isle of Wight. The companies were divided between St John’s, Newfoundland, St John’s, New Brunswick, and Frederickton, where their headquarters and five companies were based. The regiment remained in North America till August 1828 when they proceeded to Bermuda. In the autumn of 1829, they left for Ireland, arriving in early 1830. In 1818 the regiment had been reduced to ten companies of 65 rank and file each, and in 1821 it was further reduced to eight companies of 72 rank and file. In 1825, however, the strength was augmented to ten companies—six service companies of 86 rank and file, and four depot companies of 56 rank and file each. The regiment remained in Ireland till 1834, during part of which time it was actively employed in suppressing the outrages consequent on the disturbed state of the country.

Footnote
(18) Cannon, Historical Record of the 74th Regt, p.105. The 74th Regiment of Foot was a Highland regiment originally raised as the Argyll (or Argyle) Highlanders in December 1777 by Colonel John Campbell of Barbreck, who had served during the Seven Years' War. The recruits were to be at least 5' 4" tall and aged 18 through 30. Of the original 1082 men authorized, 982 were raised: 684 Highlanders, 282 Lowlanders, 12 English and 9 Irish. At the first muster on 13 April 1778, 77 men were underage, 192 men were overage, 149 men were too short and 17 were in gaol. They were first sent to Halifax in August 1778, where it was garrisoned with the 80th and 82nd regiments. In the spring of 1779, the regiment was split into ten companies, eight companies being sent to Penobscot, Maine, and the grenadier company, under Capt. Ludovick Colquhoun of Luss, along with the light company, under Captain Campbell of Bulnabic, being sent to New York. The connection to Colquhoun of Luss is interesting as Luss is where the McClintocks are said to have come from.

General Election of 1818

At the General Election, Henry Bruen and Sir Ulysses Burgh are returned for Carlow, the latter having extra support for his role as principal aide-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington. The main reason for their success was the death of Walter Kavanagh two weeks before the election - Kavanagh being succeeded by his younger brother Thomas who, on his marriage to a sister of the Earl of Ormonde, turned protestant. The Ormonde's were renowned opponents of Catholic relief. Thus the pro-Catholic LaTouche was defeated by the anti-Catholic Bruen and by Burgh, whose opinion on the issue was as yet unclear.

1818 Events

· Lady Elizabeth McClintock's brother, Lord Clancarty receives a pension of £2000 and is created Marquis of Heusden by the king of Netherlands.
· Mary Shelley, Frankenstein.
· Keats, Ode to a Nightingale.
. Beechey Park, Rathvilly, sold by Hugh Cumming, the administrator of the estate of Benjamin D'Israeli, to James Eustace in 1818 for £2400 Stg. (18a)
. On January 1st 1818, Sir Richard Moore, Baronet, was buried. He died the 29th December in Carlow Gaol for debt, aged 80 years. [Transcribed by Mary Corcoran, October 2009].
. Completed at a cost of £80,000, Francis Johnston's GPO opens for business on 6 January.

Footnote 18a: To the Regr appd by act of Parlt for Registg Deeds & Soforth. A Meml of an Indd Deed bearg date the 2d day of Decr 1818 & made Betn Hugh Cumming of Kingswere St in the city of Dublin Public notary Exeor named & appd in & by the last will and Testamt of Benjn Disrael formy of Beechly Hill in the Coy of Carlow Esqr deceased & also residuary Devisee of the sd Benjn Disrael of the one part & Jas Eustace of Castlemore in the Coy of Carlow Esqr late a Major in his Majestys Roscommon Regt of Militia of the other part. Whereby after Recitg that by Indented Deed bearg date the 3d day of Jany 1810 & made Betn the sd Jas Eustace of the first part the said Benjn Disrael of the 2d part & the sd Hugh Cumming of the 3d part the sd Jas Eustace for & in conson of a sum of £2400 Stg to him paid by the sd Benjn Disrael did Grant Sell & Confirm unto the sd Benjamin Disrael his heirs & assns an anny of yearly rent Charge of £400 for & durg the natural life of the sd Jas Eustace charged & Chargeable upon & issuing & payable out of all that & those the Towns & Lands of Castlemore, Corbally, Rathbally, Kenna, Ballyvohill, Tyneclash & Ballycurry oise Ballynecurry, Cloneen oise Clonnine, Kilknock, Tartane oise Tartan, the Mills of Bandens lame comy called the Mills of Ballymurry, Glassgowan, Kilinaglish, One moiety of the Lands of Kilinaglish, Templeton oise Templepeter & Lisgarvan & a yearly fee from Rent of £137~2~6 issug out of the Towns & Lands of Augha All sit lying & being in the Coy of Carlow payable 1/2 yearly as therein mentd & also Recitg that the sd Jas Eustace for the more effectually securg the sd anny did by the sd Decd Grant & demise to the sd Hugh Cumming his Exors Admors & assns the sevl Towns Lands fee farm Rent & prences so charged with the sd Anny. To hold the sd to the sd Hugh Cumming his Exors Admors & assns for the term of 99 years provided the sd Jas Eustace shd so long live subt to redempn as therein mentd & also Recitg the death of the sd Benjn Disrael & that the sd Hugh Cumming as residuary Devise of the real freehold & personal property of the sd Benjn Disrael was Entitled to the sd Annuity Granted by the sd Jas Eustace as afd & that the sd Jas Eustace has agreed with the sd Hugh Cumming for the redempn or repurchase thereof the sd Hugh Cumming for & in conson of the sum of £2400 Stg & all arrears of the sd anny to him pd by the sd Jas Eustace did Grant Yield Up release & Surrender unto the sd Jas Eustace his heirs & assns all that & those the sd herein before mentd Anny or yearly rent charge of £400 so granted to the sd Benjn Disrael & Charges upon the afesd Lands & Premes herein before mentd. To Hold the same unto the sd Jas Eustace his heirs & assns for ever & did also Grant & assign & Surr to the sd Jas Eustace All that & those the afd Towns Lands fee farm rent and premes to him Granted & demd as afd. To hold the same & every part thereof to the sd Jas Eustace his heirs & assns freed & dischd from the trusts mentd & deald in & by the said recited Indent of the 3d day of Jany 1810 for & durg the rest residue & remr yet to come & [___] of the term of 99 years thereby granted as afd which sd Deed & this Meml are Witnessed by Danl Ryan & Wm Henry Crawford both of the City of Dublin Attey at Law.
Hugh Cumming (Seal) Sealed & deld in presence of Wm Henry Crawford, David Ryan
Now David Ryan of the city of Dublin Gent. maketh oath & saith that he saw Hugh Cumming & Jas Eustace duly Execute the sd Deed & the sd Hugh Cumming duly Exete the above Meml thereof & dept saith the name David Ryan Subd as a witness to sd Deed the above Meml is depts Proper name & hand writg & saith he deld sd Deed & this Meml thereof to Oliver Moore Esqr Depy Regr at the Regr Office on the Inns Quay Dublin in the 24 day of Decr 1818 at or about half past 12 of the clock noon of sd Day. David Ryan Sworn before me this 24 day of Decr 1818. Olr Moore, Depy Regr.
A true copy
Wm Whit

THE VELOCIPEDE

On Saturday October 23rd, 1819, Henry McClintock plucked up his quill and penned the following in his journal:

"Fine day – Geo Foster rode on a velocipede from the Barrack yard to the Market House in Dundalk in three seconds under eight minutes, winning his wager (that he had made with Colonel Teesdae of the 1st Dn.Gds.) by three seconds only – he started at about half past ten in the morning."

This event is set to inspire one of Dundalk’s most historic and unique sporting events with the bicentenary of this speed-test scheduled for October 2019.

Henry McClintock was father of the Arctic explorer Sir Francis Leopold McClintock who was born in Dundalk just a few months before George Foster's speedy journey. His day-to-day diary of life in early 19th century County Louth has been pain-stakingly transcribed by the historian Pat O’Neill in a book called ‘The Journal of Henry McClintock’.

Foster's velocipede was probably one of 320 velocipedes made in 1819 by the London coachmaker Denis Johnson. (These included a dropped-frame version for ladies to accommodate their long skirts).

The term 'velocipede' was coined by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce to describe his 1818 creation, as pictured in the accompanying picture from the Jardin de Luxembourg, which lies close to the Centre Culturel Irlandais in Paris. Niépce's invention was based on the 'Laufmaschine', the earliest known form of bicycle, which was invented by the Baron Karl Drais of Mannheim, Germany, in 1817.

Also known as a dandy-horse, the velocipede was all the rage for Regency bucks across England and Ireland in the summer and autumn of 1819. The craze died out when surgeons warned that it damaged health, while many local authorities prohibited the pastime as it caused too many accidents, either by collisions with pedestrians or by simple falls as per the man in the background of the accompanying picture.

The bicycle would not be invented until the 1860s.

 

1819 Events

· Birth of Francis Leopold McClintock, the explorer, in Dundalk (8th July), son of Henry McClintock (then in charge of the Custom House at Dundalk) and nephew of John McClintock Sr. of Drumcar.
· Factory Act limits children's working day in England.
· Cock-fighting contest of 21 battles in The Grand Main - Tullow defeat Carlow (July).
· Famine in Ireland takes some 30,000 lives.
· Hugh Gough appointed to the 22nd Foot on it's return home and commanded it during most of the regiments time in the south of Ireland during a period of great excitement until 1826. While in command he revived the "regimental order of merit" established by George III in 1785 (later replaced by good conduct medals). When not in regimental employment, he passed his time at his estate in Tipperary of which county he was magistrate (as well as for the counties of Cork and Limerick) and he was, according to the D.N.B., generally considered a genial and courteous fellow by gentry and peasantry alike.

1820 Events

· Death of William's great-uncle George Bunbury of Rathmore, MP, aged 73 (May). [A copy of his will is to be found in Box 106'109 at Lisnavagh].
· In the election which follows the accession of George IV,Burgh and Bruen retain seats for the Tory party.
· Birth of Robert Watson of Ballydarton, future Master of the Carlow Hunt.
· Romanticism in arts and literature begins - Sir Walter Scott, Ivanhoe.

The Whitty Family & St. Mary's of Rathvilly

The Protestant Church in Rathvilly was under the care of the Rev. John Whitty, Rector of Rathvilly from 1803 until 1844. John's father, the Rev. Edward Whitty, had been Rector of Rathvilly from 1765 until just before his death in 1804, so the Whitty father and son effectively ran St. Mary's Church for close on 80 years. It is not clear when he actually moved to Rathvilly. In 1787, Edward was living at Providence Lodge near Ballickmoyler in the Queen's County. Ballickmoyler was one of the host stops for the Carlow Hunt. It can be assumed that Edward held his living from the Cooper family of Coopers Hill. Edward's agent in Ballickmoyler was one John Bowles, a former wig maker and sometime shoemaker. When Bowles went to seize cattle from a tithe defaulter on Whitty's behalf, he was beaten up and threatened with hanging by a mob. (18a) Edward's house at Rathvilly was also burned during the 1798 rebellion. John Whitty was living at Providence Lodge in 1798 but was listed as a Magistrate in Carlow by 1804. John's wife, Anne Whitty died at Rathvilly in 1826.

[18a.] John Bowles' children subsequently emigrated to Canada and produced some extremely notable Canadians including former Prime Minister, Lester Bowles Pearson. The family are also known as Boles, Bovill and Bovills.See: The Descendants in Canada of John's son Charles Bowles.Another possible connection is Emily Bowles, the author of Irish Diamonds, referred to as the 'Uncle Tom's Cabin of Irish literature' by the inestimable Tom La Porte, who lately purchased an 1867 First Edition of the book on eBay for 5euros.

image title

Above: As Prince Regent, George
IV effectively ruled Britain for
the first thirty years of Captain
Bunbury's life, although he did
not become King until 1820.

George IV & Queen CAROLINE

William was probably just sitting his Lieutenant's examinations when the death of George III was announced on 29th January 1820. His son, the Prince Regent, now became George IV. As Churchill once wrote, "most English people are intrinsically Royalist; the personal defects of their sovereign have little effect upon this deep-rooted tradition". That said, the Royal family was in a state of rapid decline that would not stop until Queen Victoria ascended the throne in 1837. George IV was a wastrel and spendthrift, never more at ease than when enjoying the boozy company of men like Richard Sheridan, Beau Brummell and James Fox. The monarch, who weighed 17 stone 7 pounds, spent considerable fortune on buildings such as the splendid Brighton Pavilion and the new Windsor Castle. He was reputedly so horrified by his forced marriage to Caroline of Brunswick that he spent the first days of married life utterly drunk. His attempt to divorce her inspired huge public support for the queen while the King's supporters were stoned as they drove by in their carriages. Caroline was accused of having an affair with an Italian although she ultimately won the case and was awarded £50,000. Alas, she was dead within a month of their Coronation in July 1821.

George IV's Visit to Ireland

In 1821 the King became the first monarch to pay a state visit to Ireland since Richard II. Dun Laoghaire is renamed Kingstown in his honour. Later that year he visits Waterloo and is attended to by William Bunbury's step-uncle, the Earl of Clancarty.

 

Economic Recession

Meanwhule, the Tory party, who had been in power almost without interruption for 30 years, were struggling to cope with the fervent aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars. The Industrial Revolution was creating all new social problems across post-war Britain with a widespread recession and the simultaneous emergence of a real working class rabble, 'drinking and hurling abuse on every street corner'. The English army who had so heroically defeated Bonny were unceremoniously and abruptly disbanded on August 11th 1815 without any pension, medal or even a thank you. 300,000 war-scarred soldiers and sailors were suddenly set adrift. Meanwhile, despite the effects of small-scale potato blights, the population of Ireland increased by 10% between 1821 and 1831. In August 1822, the Tory foreign secretary Lord Castlereagh, whom Churchill credits with recreating Europe in 1815, "his mind unhinged by overwork, cut his throat in the dressing room of his home". The event must have crossed William's mind some years later when he encountered the Beagle in South America for Robert FitzRoy, Captain of the Beagle, was Castlereagh's nephew.

SYRA

On 12th September 1822, William was appointed Lieutenant of Syra, but I am unsure whether that was the Greek island or a ship. There does not appear to be a ship of that name. I will need to look at this document again.

the finnigans & the rev. f.e. trench

In 1822, the tranquillity of Carlow society was rocked by an attempt on the life of the Rev. Frederick Eyre Trench, the 53-year-old Church of Ireland Rector at Kellistown. An unknown gang attacked his carriage on his way from Kellistown to Lisnavagh. Shots were fired and one of his horses killed. Trench lay low in his house until the following morning, before alerting the police. The Carlow gentry swiftly gathered a reward for anyone who came forward with information leading to the arrest of the gang. From the £700 raised, it was noted in the Carlow Morning Post that the three highest givers were Henry Bruen (£50), Benjamin Bunbury (£50) and Thomas Bunbury (£20). Born in 1769, Frederick was the eldest son of Eyre Trench by his marriage (1768) to Charlotte O'Hara, daughter of Kean O'Hara of Dublin and granddaughter of Kean O’Hara of Annaghmore, Co. Sligo. Eyre Trench was a younger brother of Richard Trench of Garbally (1710–1768) and thus uncle to the 1st Earl of Clancarty. In 1795, the Rev FE Trench married Catherine Head, daughter of Michael Head of Derry Castle. The Rev. Trench died in 1848, leaving two sons. Their eldest son, John Eyre Trench (1798 - 02.1864), lived at Clonfert, married (1834) Grace Burdett (dau of Rev. John Burdett of Banagher and Ballygarth) and had issue. Their second son, William Eyre Trench (1800-1861), was a direct contemporary of William McClintock Bunbury (1800–1866) and died unmarried.
The Bunbury connection to the Trenches comes through the April 1805 marriage of Lady Elizabeth Trench, daughter of the 1st Earl of Clancarty, to John McClintock of Drumcar. McClintock’s first wife was Jane Bunbury of Lisnavagh. Jane was killed in a horse-fall in 1801, leaving two sons, the first Lord Rathdonnell and our hero, William McClintock Bunbury, and a daughter, Catherine. As these children were very much brought up by the Clancarty / Trench family from 1805, it is unsurprising that Jane’s uncle Benjamin Bunbury and her brother Thomas Bunbury should both offer such large amounts. Moreover, it later transpired that the Finnegan’s were on their way to attack the Bunburys at Lisnavagh when diverted by the Rev. Trench.
Later that year, an anonymous citizen came forward with the required information. The Finnegans of the barony of Rathvilly were described in an extract from this letter as ‘a gang of robbers … some of whom have grown grey in their inveterate habits and have trained up their youth in villainous practices, taking up arms and robbing, until at length they attempted to rob the Reverend Trench’. Michael Finnegan is reported to have had fifty acres of land, 30 cows and a well-appointed set of farming implements so there was no reason why he should resort to violence. Nonetheless, these men were not heroes or freedom fighters; they were a gang of gurriers who were terrorizing the neighbourhood.
Michael Purcell has since discovered the complete letter to have been written by the Rev Father Martin Doyle, parish priest of Cloengal. It was handy money for the priest; only the previous summer his parishioners had expressed their wish to subscribe to the building of a new Roman Catholic Church in the parish of Clonegal. So somehow he secured the necessary information from the confession box or otherwise. The Finnegans were duly arrested and brought to trial before Lord Norbury. Prosecution was unable to prove that the Finnegan Gang had attacked Trench. Evidence from informers was not legitimate as too many scoundrels were trying to settle scores or claim rewards and thus sending phony reports to the authorities. The Finnegans were charged with other crimes instead, much like Al Capone and John Gilligan. Lord Norbury is recorded as being very emotional as he sentenced them. On August 6th, 1822, Michael and Hugh Finnegan, father and son, and William Nolan were hanged for robbery and burglary in the house of Patrick Farrell, Grangeford, on April 18th, 1822. The execution took place in front of the gaol where Rev. W. Fitzgerald, P.P, attended the unfortunate men.

In October 1822, the Carlow Morning Post vehemently condemened gangs such as the Finnergans: Robberies, murders, burnings, and every species of outrage, have again commenced in the South ! Even our own neighbourhood of Carlow is not perfectly free from the spoilations of midnight ruffians: there is every prospect of a worse winter than we had last year, from the increased distress of the middle orders and the increased depravity of the lower classes of Society. - Such is the State of Ireland. A few nights ago there was a horse rode almost to death, by some of the express boys, in the Barony of Rathvilly. On the same night a tongue was cut out of a Cow, belonging to a Farmer in that neighbourhood- yet this Barony is paying a Police!

1822 Events

· Birth of William's youngest half-brother, GAJ McClintock, on 22nd May.
· William's cousin Louisa Foster marries Thomas, Lord Plunkett, DD, Lord Bishop of Tuam. The wedding took place in a year when both famine and typhus ravaged the west of Ireland.
· William's uncle, Lord Clancarty resigns his post as Ambassador in the Netherlands.
· Members of the Orange Order discredit themselves with a rowdy demonstration in the new Theatre Royal against the Lord Lieutenant when he sought to dissuade them from decorating the statute of William III in Dublin.

DEATH OF BENJAMIN BUNBURY OF MOYLE (1823)

William's great-uncle Benjamin Bunbury of Moyle dies in May aged 72 and is buried at St. Mary's, Rathvilly. His will was proven shortly afterwards. Benjamin had effectively run the family estates at Moyle and Lisnavagh since the death of William’s grandfather in the 1770s. William’s uncle Tom Bunbury, heir of Lisnavagh, seems to have spent most of his time between Bath and London. This coincided with the court martial of William's other uncle Kane Bunbury who duly left the army at the age of 46 to take up the running of Moyle.

1823 Events

· Sir George and Lady Mary Grey's daughter Mary married Captain Thomas Monck Mason in Portsmouth. They later lived Enniskerry Lodge, Wicklow and Marshall Hall, Dublin. Her brother George Grey was a friend of William McClintock Bunbury.
· William's 26-year-old brother John McClintock Junior elected MP for Athlone.
· Lord Clancarty created Viscount in the British peerage (8th Dec). Henceforth he resided usually on his estates in Ireland where he was lord lieutenant of Co. Galway and vice- admiral of Connaught, and ran the Ballinasloe Horse Festival where Napoleon had purchased his horses a decade earlier.
· Death of the Rev. John H. G. Lefroy, Rector of Ashe, Hampshire, father of Anne Lefroy, later 1st Lady Rathdonnell. Anne then moved with her family of six brothers and four sisters with their mother to Itchel Manor, near Farnham, which had been left to her father a few years before his death.
· Birth of Charles Burton, future 5th Bart.
· Macintosh develops first rain-proof coat.
· U.S.A. declares the Monroe Doctrine.
· The foundation of the Catholic Association of Ireland.

THE END OF THE CATHOLIC-PROTESTANT ALLIANCE

In the early decades of the 19th century Catholics and Protestants by and large had lived on excellent neighbourly terms with each other. During this period the Roman Catholic Bishop of Kildare and Leighlin, James Doyle (J.K.L.), wrote about the blessings to Ireland which a union of the churches would bring and of the advantages to be derived from the mixed education of Catholics and Protestants, saying that he did not know of any measure which would prepare the way for a better feeling in Ireland than that of uniting children at an early age, and bringing them up in the same school.
This was the time when the Protestant gentry of Carlow were helping Fr. Michael MacDonald to build his new church in Killeshin, the foundation stone of which was laid in May 1819 on a site given by William Cooper (of Cooper Hill). Protestants like Col. Bruen, and the Earl of Portarlington made generous financial contributions towards the building fund. To add to the fund a Grand Oratorio and Sermon was organised by the Carlow
Protestants under the patronage of Lady Butler, Lady Burgh, Mrs Bruen, Mrs Rochfort, Mrs Cooper and Mrs Fishbourne. Among the gentlemen who acted as collectors on the occasion and who were publicly thanked by the Catholics of Killeshin were Messrs. Browne, Burton, Cooper, Vigors and Fishbourne. When the building was completed in August 1819 the Carlow Morning Post asserted: To the liberality of the Protestant gentry the Catholics are chiefly indebted for the erection of this very handsome building.
Most of this good neighbourliness was to change into bitter sectarian feuding a few years later during the 1820s largely as a result, on the one hand , of the launching of the Protestant Evangelical Crusade to convert Irish Catholics to Protestants and the deep resentment which this caused among the Catholic clergy; and, on the other hand, to the launching of Danial O' Connell's Emancipation movement in 1823 and the exaggerated fears which this struck into Protestant breasts. The Evangelical movement in England had chosen Ireland and its Roman Catholic people for a great missionary crusade.
Extract from a lecture by Professor Donal McCartney delivered in 1986.
Published by Michael Purcell in "Carlow Past and Present 1987".

1824 - 1825 Events

· In January 1824, the Catholic Board was reformatted as Catholic Association under Daniel O'Connell who reduces membership fee so as to as to enable poorer Catholics to join in and identify closely with what otherwise might have seemed a remote cause. From here the emancipation movement gathered such a mass following (with considerable support from continental Europe) that it could not be stopped and O'Connell became one of the greatest figures of the age.
· Start of Irish Ecumenical Movement by J.K.L. (otherwise Dr. James Doyle, Roman Catholic Bishop of Kildare and Ossory).
· The first Ordnance mapping survey of Ireland begins.
· Fair Traveller Coach departing for Dublin from Dublin St, Carlow, every afternoon at 2:30; Carlow Retaliator at 8:20 & Waterford coach passed through every second day at 1:40 pm, returning to Waterford at 1:10 pm on alternative days - otherwise fly-boats down the Grand Canal & the Barrow were popular.
· McClintocks active in Protestant Evangelical movement in Co. Louth. In 1825, Lady Elizabeth McClintock and the Kildare Place Society found a Protestant elementary school in Drumcar.
. Launch of new zealous Irish newspaper, The Carlow Protestant Defender (September 1825).
· Beethoven, Symphony No.9 (Choral).

image title

Above: You needed a lot of neck to be a sailor
in the 1830s. And judging by this portrait of
Captain William McClintock Bunbury, he
wasn't short of neck. The portrait is held at
Lisnavagh, the mansion he commissioned
during the 1840s. The portrait suggests a kindly
man whose sea-faring career ensured he
was well used to staring into the middle distance.

Lieutenant William Bunbury McClintock- First Commission on HMS Samarang - Halifax & Good Hope (1824-1828)

In 1822, William sat and passed his Lieutenant's examination. (18a). He was officially promoted on 12 September 1822. On 11 September 1823, he was appointed to the Tamar 26 under Captain Sir James John Gordon Bremer, fitting in the River Thames. Five months later, on 2 February 1824, he was appointed to the Samarang 28, on which ship he would serve for much of his remaining naval career. On 13 February he received his first Commission to serve as a 1st Lieutenant on board H.M.S. Samarang.

According to O'Byrne, the ship's commander was Sir William Saltonstall Wiseman. William's commission was to run until 1828, during which time command of the ship passed to David Dunn. The Samarang was launched at Cochin on 1st January 1822, most probably as an East Indiaman, meaning she would have originally operated under charter or license to the British East India Company. She was named for the port city off Samarang on the north of the Indonesian island of Java. It was a wooden hulled, sail-propelled sixth rate warship, or 'jackass frigate', carrying 28 nine-pounder guns on deck. She measured 113 ½ feet in length, 32 feet in width and weighed 500 tons builder's measurement. (19) Sixth-rate ships typically had a crew of about 150 - 240 men and 18 officers, including a captain, two lieutenants and the key warrant officers- the master, the surgeon, the purser, the gunner, the bosun and the carpenter- and four midshipmen. The rest of the men were the crew, or the 'lower deck'. They slept in hammocks and ate their simple meals at tables, sitting on wooden benches. Some were marines while in a strong crew the bulk were experienced seamen rated 'able' or 'ordinary'. In a weaker crew there would be a large proportion of 'landsmen', adults unused to the sea. As Darwin noted when he came on board, the Samarang was a ship kept 'in real fighting order', capable of firing an effective broadside 'at any time under five minutes'. (20)

On 17 June 1824 his friend George Grey (1799-1882) wrote to his sister Mary Monck (nee Grey): "I was at home for a few days last week and saw William McClintock off in the Samarang. John came to town the day before yesterday." (20a) Sir George Grey, as he became, went on to become a leading British Whig and held office under four Prime Ministers, Lord Melbourne, Lord John Russell, Lord Aberdeen, and Lord Palmerston, serving three times as Home Secretary. From Portsmouth (it is assumed), the Samarang crossed the ocean to Halifax, Nova Scotia, where William's brother John McClintock was garrisoned, before about turning and heading south east for the Cape of Good Hope at South Africa on 28th November 1824. Sir George's sister Mary Monck and their mother, Lady Mary Grey, were heavily involved in the establishment of schools in Portsmouth for the children of the poor (sailors?) along with various other charitable organisations.

FOOTNOTE
18a. This would have been a verbal exam, presided over by three or more Captains, plus an examination of the journals and logs, which he been obliged to keep during his service. If he failed the test, he would resume duty as a Midshipman, re-sitting the examination at a later date. On passing for Lieutenant, he would return to the Midshipman's berth to await the call to a ship. Without "interest" (influence) this could be a long wait. Eventually he would be appointed to a ship as the most junior lieutenant. The number of lieutenants in a ship depended on her size. A 100-gun ship like Nelson's HMS Victory had eight. When he became more senior, he might be given command of a small vessel. This craft would be too small to warrant having a Master (navigator), so the Lieutenant would be the 'Master and Commander'. By courtesy he would be addressed as Captain.
(19) JJ Colledge, Ships of the Royal Navy, Vol 1 (1969).
(20) Keynes, R. D. ed. 2001. Charles Darwin's Beagle Diary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(20a) The full paragraph, written on 17 June 1824 from Southampton Ro,) went as follows. “John came to town the day before yesterday and I have obliged your instructions in introducing him to Lord Rock….(?) and the Shaws but I am very sorry to say it is so late in the season that people are beginning to leave town. This is the case with the Shaws who are in the point of going to the Wilberforces. We are however to dine with the latter next week. The Forsters are not in town. They have let their house for some weeks and have taken one for the time in Clapham to be in the country. " I am unsure who John was - it could be William's brother John McClintock but i thought he was in Halifax - my thanks to Vicki Pattinson for this detail.

PORT AND LARBOARD

At this point it is perhaps worth diverting to a description of William given by Charles Benedict Davenport in his study of 'Naval Officers, their heredity and development' (p. 18). Mr. Davenport is actually reflecting on Sir Leopold McClintock, William's cousin, and writes as follows: 'Ability in command is another trait. He understood and managed men. His book reveals abundant evidence of his "consummate leadership." Those who worked with him or served under him felt the most unbounded confidence in his judgment and resolution. This ability appears also in the son of his father's brother John. Lieutenant W. Bunbury McClintock did not drink or swear and exerted a good influence on those under him. He was one of the first, if not the first, to introduce the use of "port" instead of "larboard" into the service.' Larboard was understandably too often misheard as 'starboard'. In 2011, my father, a retired naval officer, told me the same confusion remained in the merchant service at least until 1912. He also maintains that the coxswain (who steers the ship) may have misheard this very command from the Titanic's bridge so that, for a few vital minutes, the ship swung the wrong way, towards the iceberg.

Elsewhere I read that Robert FitzRoy, Captain of Darwin's HMS Beagle, was taught his crew to use the term 'port' instead of the traditional 'larboard', thus propelling the use of the word into the Naval Services vocabulary. Given that William and Captain Fitzroy became aquainted during the 1820s, it remains possible that William McClintock Bunbury of Lisnavagh invented the word 'port'.

The Samarang under Sir David Dunn

At this time, the captain of the Samarang - and William's immediate superior - was Captain David Dunn, a veteran of the Napoleonic Wars who had entered the Navy in 1800, becoming Commander of Bacchante in 1811. In November 1826, Dunn was transferred from the Samarang to the Curaco (1831-1835) and, later, the Vanguard (1840-1843). Dunn was knighted in 1835, married Henrietta, daughter of Gerard Montagu in 1838 and died in 1859 with the rank of Vice-Admiral. Anthony Malcomson believes William possessed a very efficient mind, documenting both naval and domestic affairs with great thoroughness. This seems to be borne out by the miscellaneous journals, sketch books and log books of the Samarang's voyages that I am presently going through. Amongst them is a chart of False Bay in the Cape of Good Hope dated 1826, not long after this part of South Africa had gone to Britain. It looks like a guide to finding pirates treasure.

The Samarang under Captain Martin

On 15th November 1826, the Captaincy of the Samarang passed to Captain William Fanshawe Martin (1801 - 1895) who kept her in the Mediterranean until 1831 when Captain Paget and Lieutenant Bunbury took her to South America. The Captain, later Admiral Sir William Fanshawe Martin, was the eldest son of Sir Thomas Byam Martin, later Admiral of the Fleet and comptroller of the navy. His mothers' father, Captain Robert Fanshawe, commanded the Namur 90 in George Rodney's victory over the French at the Battle of the Saintes of April 12, 1782. Entering the navy at the age of twelve, the interest of Martin's father secured his rapid promotion: he was made a lieutenant in 1820, promoted commander of the Fly sloop in 1823 and Captain on June 5th 1824. In 1826, he married Hon. Anne Best (died 1836), daughter of Lord Wynford, Lord Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas. Captain Martin commanded Samarang in the Mediterranean and on the home station. His wife Anne died in 1836 and, on 21st May 1838, he married, secondly, Sophia, daughter of Richard Hurt, of Wirksworth, Derbyshire. In 1849-1852 he was on the Prince Regent, commanding the Channel squadron, showing a remarkable aptitude for command. He was subsequently First Sea Lord of the Admiralty and Commander-in-Chief in the Mediterranean Sea. (20a).

Footnote:
(20a) William Fanshawe Martin was made Rear-Admiral in May 1853, and for the next four years was superintendent of Portsmouth dockyard. He was made vice-admiral in February 1858, and after a year as a First Sea Lord of the Admiralty, was appointed Commander-in-Chief in the Mediterranean Sea. The discipline of the navy was then bad. It was a tradition sprung from the wholesale shipment of gaol-birds during the old war, that the men were to be treated without consideration; moreover the ships had been largely filled up with bounty men bought into the service with a £10 note, without training. Out of this unpromising material Martin formed the fleet which was at that time the ideal of excellence. He had no war service, and, beyond the Italian disturbance of 1860-61, no opportunity for showing diplomatic ability. But his memory lives as that of the reformer of discipline and the originator of a comprehensive system of steam manoeuvres. He became an admiral in November 1863, and on 4th December, succeeded to the baronetcy which had been conferred on his grandfather. His last appointment was the command at Plymouth, 1866-1869, and in 1870 he was put on the retired list. In 1873 the GCB was conferred on him, and in 1878 he was made rear-admiral. He died at Upton Grey, near Winchfield, on the 24th of March 1895. He was twice married, and left, besides daughters, one son, who succeeded to the baronetcy. Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition

Death of a Cousin

On the 29th February 1824, two weeks after he received his commission on the Samarang, William's cousin, Arthur Henry McClintock, son of William Foster McClintock, Esq., passed away at Annagassan Lodge 'of a few days' illness, in the eleventh year of his age'. (21)

Footnotes
(21) The Connaught Journal, Galway, Monday, March 1, 1824

HACKETSTOWN ATTACK

On 21st day of September 1826 Laurence Conneron of Bortle in the Parish of Kiltegan, County of Wicklow made the following statement to Rev. James McGhee, Justice of the Peace.
On Monday 18th day of September I was in Hacketstown, Carlow when I was violently and riotously attacked without any provocation I was beaten, cut, battered and abused by Andrew Shannon and Patrick Freeman both of Hacketstown, Carlow, Laurence Doyle of Bortle, Wicklow, Hugh King of Eagle Hill, Carlow, Patrick Reilly of Eagle Hill otherwise Crounaseagh, Carlow all of whom joined with nine others in assaulting and beating me and I really think that I would have been killed had it not been for the interference of the women of Hacketstown. his (signed ) Laurence X Conneron mark. (PPP)

The Tighe Marriage

On 21st April 1827 (or 1828?), William's eldest half-sister, Anne Florence McClintock married Very Rev. Hugh Usher Tighe, D.D., Dean of Derry and Dean of the Chapel Royal, Dublin Castle, and had issue (see TIGHE of Mitchelstown). Tighe hailed from good stock. His ancestor, Richard Tighe of The Haymarket, was married in the late 17th century to Mabella, daughter of Robert Stearne of Tullynally, Co. Westmeath, sister of Major-Gen Robert Stearne, Governor of Kilmainham and first cousin of John Stearne, DD, Bishop of Clogher. The family subsequently succeeded to considerable estates in Westmeath and Carlow, and inter-married with the Clements family, Earls of Leitrim. Hugh’s grandfather Richard Stearne Tighe (1717-1761) was MP for Athy but died young. In 1766, Hugh’s father, Robert Stearne Tighe (1760-1835) succeeded to the family estates, albeit aged 6-years-old. In 1785, Robert married Hugh’s mother – Catherine, only daughter and heir of Col Hugh Morgan of Cottlestown, Co Sligo, and Cork Abbey, Co Wicklow. Catherine’s mother Elizabeth was daughter and heir of the Rt Hon Philip Tisdall, Attorney-General of Ireland, by Mary Singleton, niece and co-heir of the Rt Hon Henry Singleton, Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. In other words, Henry’s grandfather was Chief Justice Singleton.
Born on 27 February 1802, Hugh was Robert and Catherine’s third son. His mother died sometime after his birth and his father was married secondly to Anna Dilkes, daughter of Major-General Dilkes and sister of Lieut-Gen Dilkes, Lt Governor of Quebec at the time. Anna passed away in May 1823. Robert Tighe died on 21 May 1835 and left his property to Hugh’s elder brother Robert Morgan Tighe (1790-1853) who lived at Mitchelstown, Co Westmeath. The younger Robert was married in the summer of 1836 to the heieress of Rt Rev Thomas St Lawrence, Bishop of Cork and Ross. Hugh’s other brother William Stearne Tighe was just 13-years-old when he was lost on board HMS Ajax in December 1806. Hugh’s sister Catherine (d. Feb 1858) was married in July 1807 to William Henry Worth Newenham (d. Sept 1842) of Coolmore, Co Cork.
However, in 1833, Hugh’s cousin Stearne Tighe of Carrick, Co. Westmeath, passed away and left Hugh a considerable estate at Carrick. Hugh and Anne Tighe had two sons, Robert Hugh Morgan Tighe (Feb 1829-May 1867) and Charles Moland Morgan Tighe (d. April 1843), and two daughters. Neither son married or registered any legitimate children. Elizabeth Laetitia Morgan Tighe (d. 25 Feb 1906) niece of Captain WBMcCB) was married on 22 June 1853 to Edward Stopford Blair of Penningham (d. 17 Sept 1875). Her younger sister Catherine Florence Morgan Tighe was married on 6 July 1858 to JE Severne, MP, of Wallop Hall and Thenford.
Anne Tighe (nee McClintock) died 21st February 1893.

The Bruens of Oak Park

In the late 18th century the two most powerful families in Carlow were Kavanagh and Bagenal. The latter bankrupted themselves through heady living and were forced to sell up. This they did, primarily to the La Touche family, but also to the Bruens. (22) The first Henry Bruen arrived in the county in 1775 just as Beauchamp Bagenal was selling off his estate. By buying land from the Bagenals, Grogans, Whaleys and Beauchamps, Bruen was soon able to match Kavanagh's 14,000 acre estate. By 1835, Colonel Henry Bruen had married one of the Kavanagh daughters and secured an income of £13,000 - just £2000 less than Kavanagh himself. Colonel Bruen's father had represented Carlow as an MP from 1790 until his death in 1795. Bruen himself sat for the county from 1812 until his own death in 1852 (with the exception of 1831 - 1835 and 1837 - 1840 when temporarily ousted by the O'Connellites). The Colonel's son was MP for Carlow from 1856 to 1880. Thus in three generations the Bruen family represented Carlow for nearly 70 years.

Footnotes
(22) The La Touche income from these estates for the 1790s is reckoned at about £7000 a year - the Kavanaghs and Bruens were probably on similar earnings while the Burtons and Rochforts were more like £5000-£7000. It was a wealthy county.

The Kavanaghs of Borris

Thomas Kavanagh married Lady Susanna Butler of Garyricken, a sister of John, 17th Earl of Ormonde. He was MP for the City of Kilkenny in the last Irish Parliament at College Green and subsequently MP for Carlow in Westminster. Among their children were Walter (who died in about 1800), Honora (a nun) and Thomas Kavanagh (1767-1837). The latter inherited Borris in 1800. His first wife was his cousin Lady Elizabeth Butler, daughter of the 17th Earl of Ormonde, by whom he had nine daughters and a son who died young. All these children were raised as Catholics but Kavanaghs of Borris prided themselves on being descended from the Rithe Laighean and were thus considered acceptable marriage partners by the gentry and peerage. One of the daughters, Anne Kavanagh, married Henry Bruen II (1790 - 1852), thus uniting the two most powerful families in County Carlow. (23) Kavanagh's second wife was Lady Harriet Le Poer Trench, sister of Lady Elizabeth McClintock, a formidable Lady Macbeth of a creature who rapidly changed the family religion to that of the Established Church and also founded the Borris lace-making industry. (24) There were four sons - Walter (a weak child who died in 1836), Tom (who died of TB in 1850), Charles (who died in a fire in 1851) and Arthur (the Incredible Mr. Kavanagh). The latter who was MP for Carlow from 1868 to 1880 is the subject of at least two biographies.

Footnotes
(23) So was Anne Kavanagh Katherine Anne's mother or grandmother?
(24) She died aged 85 on 14th July 1883 and was buried in St. Mullins alongside King Art MacMurrough & co.

1825 Events

· Trade unions legalised in Britain.
· Orange Order obliged to dissolve itself.
· Sir Walter Scott visits Ireland.

1826 Events

· Hugh Gough retires on half-pay again.

· Following the appointments of Sir Ulysses Burgh to the House of Lords on 2nd March as Lord Downes, there is a by-election in which he is succeeded by Thomas Kavanagh (Bruen's father-in-law) - Kavanagh was not in Carlow on the day of his election, and a John Bennett of Viewmount was "chaired in his place through the streets, and distributed handfuls of silver among the populace" (April 12th). In a later General Election, both Kavanagh and Bruen are successfully returned.

· D'Israeil School, Bough, completed and opened up to public. Within two years, there are 442 pupils on the roll. However, contrary to initial endowment, school came to be regarded as exclusively Protestant, until its doors (as a school) finally closed in 1977.

· Bolivar completes liberation of South America, to which continent Lieutenant William McClintock Bunbury is soon to head.

· On July 4th, the 50th anniversary of the American Declaration of Independence, an extraordinary thing happens when both John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, two former US Presidents and the last veterans of the political machinations of those times, pass away. The events are intelligently captured in the 2009 HBO series 'John Adams' with Paul Giamati, Laura Linney and Stephen Dillane.

1827 Events

Lord Clancarty, speaking before House of Lords, censuring the negligence of the law officers in Ireland and declaring his opinion that no exceptional measures were necessary for repressing the Catholic Association (8th March). However, when the Catholic Relief bill was brought in by the government in 1829, he opposed the measure on account of the conduct of the Catholics. He said that, like Pitt, he would have granted relief on condition of good behaviour. Wellington duly charged Clancarty with obstructing the emancipation bill.

image title

Above: HMS Procris, upon which William McClintock
Bunbury served as first lieutenant in 1828. Painted
by Mathieu-Antoine Roux while Procris stopped
in Marseilles..

On Board HMS Procris

On April 28th 1828, William Bunbury McClintock, 1st Lieutenant, finished his first commission on board H.M.S. Samarang. On 21st August he was appointed to HMS Procris 10, under Captain Charles Henry Paget and Sir Thomas Sabine Pasley. The ship was staioned off Cork and in the Mediterranean for the next three years. Rather confusingly we also have a record in the archives of his appointment the Semiramis (named for Egyptian goddess). And yet he also appears to have been transferred to His Majesty’s sloop Procris on 21 Aug 1828, and again on 5 Feb 1829. We have a journal which he kept on the Procris from 1 Nov 1829 to July 1830, see below for more detail.

1828 Events

Portrait of John McClintock in library at Lisnavagh attributed to John Jackson, RA, of London (Aug 1828 ... possibly 1825).
· Lord William Bentinck appointed Governor-General of India (until 1835) ushering in an era of utilitarian liberalism, affirming British arrogance and disputing the capacity of young Indians to assimilate culturally into the Empire.
· In a symbolic protest against the anti-Catholic oath that MPs had to take on entering parliament, Daniel O'Connell stands for election in Co. Clare and defeats the liberal protestant incumbent, Vessey Fitzgerald (June). This, combined with the Repeal of the Test Acts later that year, provokes panic throughout the Protestant community, which promptly unites with the Presbyterians. The Orange Order again revives throughout the UK - although it only successfully flourishes in Ireland.

THOMAS BUNBURY, FOREMAN OF THE JURY

When Charles Kendal Bushe (1767–1843 ), the 61-year-old Lord Chief Justice, arrived in Carlow for the Spring Assizes on March 20th 1828, Thomas Bunbury of Moyle, Esq, was appointed foreman of a 22-strong Grand Jury comprising of Henry Bruen, MP, John Stuaton Rochfort, Sir Thomas Butler, Philip Newton, Robert Doyne, William F. Burton, John Dawson Ducket, William R Stewart, William Ducket, James Butler (Broomville), John Falkiner Cornwall, John Whelan, Robert C. Brown, Walter Newton, Henry Falkiner, Robert Eustace, John Alexander, Thoma Elliott, Pilsworth Whelan, John Watson (Ballydarton), Walter Blackney and William Fishbourne. It was the first time the Grand Jury had met foir eight months but, as the Chef Justice noted, the county had ‘maintained a high character for good conduct and tranquility’ in the meantime. There were only thirty cases to deal with and only two of those were serious. The most serious of these concerned the posting of threatening notices, the first such incidence in a long time, and regarded as a serious offence because it so often led to the commission of other crimes. Details of the other serious crime were not divulged.

Catholic Emancipation 1829

As A.G. Brown states, "quite apart from the insights this may give us into career paths amongst the officer class, one may perhaps wonder whether relationships between officers - individual or in cliques - of the Protestant ascendancy and the many lower-deck seamen of Irish Catholic origins were unusually troublesome or not. Furthermore, although commissioned officers were by definition Protestant - the oath abjuring the Pope had to be sworn - is it really possible, looking at the names and families listed below, that there were no closet Catholics whatever in the upper ranks of the Royal Navy?" I don't yet have details for the non-commissioned officers (bosuns, sailing masters, parsons, pursers etc.) on the Samarang but I imagine at least some of them were Catholic.

During the 1820s, a split emerged in the Tory party when George Canning began towing a rather more liberal line. Wellington viewed this as revolutionary and soon became leader of the right wing Tories. As Prime Minister, he tended to regard Britain as a battlefield and his Cabinet as his subordinates. Wellington's political career began in 1817 when Lord Liverpool persuaded him to become Master of Ordnance to restore some victorious moral during the recessional times. His greatest achievement as Prime Minsiter was arguably to secure Catholic Emancipation - something he was personally opposed to - with clauses in his favour. Like Peel, he realised that if they didn't emancipate the Irish Catholics, they'd have a revolution in Ireland because O'Connell had the heat up and the Bourbons were in serious trouble in Europe. So they compromised and Daniel O'Connell introduced Catholic Emancipation, enabling Catholics to vote at last. Following a promise by the king in February to grant catholic relief to Parliament, the Catholic Emancipation Bill receives the assent of both houses in June; thereby allowing Catholics to hold all offices of state excluding those of regent, lord lieutenant and lord chancellor.

Catholics were now entitled to be elected to the House of Commons without having to take the oath of supremacy (although still obliged to deny the Popes' civil authority in the UK). This was a major victory for O'Connell (June). The subsequent disenfranchising of the forty-shilling freeholders meant that the number of persons actually allowed to vote was substantially reduced from 216,000 to, at most, 37,000. By instead keeping the franchise at £10 it was hoped to keep the more subversive elements at bay. In the wake of Emancipation, the Catholic Association was suppressed by a nervous Protestant community who swiftly began emigrating by the boatful.

So basically Westminster managed to water O'Connell's success right down by levying a property qualification of £10 Sterling upon any Catholic who wanted a vote. In 1831, it transpired that less than 19,000 Irish Catholics could meet that criteria.

Events 1829

· Peel develops Metropolitan Police in London ("Peelers").

The Lefroy Marriage of 1829

On 11 August 1829, William's older brother John McClintock Junior, later Baron Rathdonnell, married 21-year-old Anne Lefroy. She was the eldest daughter of Jane Austen's friends from Bath, the late Rev. John H. G. Lefroy of Ewsholt House, Hants, by his wife, Sophia, youngest daughter of the Rev. Charles Jeffrey Cottrell of Hadley, Middlesex (August). According to 'The Weekly Notes' of the Incorporated Council of Law Reporting for England and Wales 1952 (p 142) she brought a sum of £5000 upon her marriage - Google Books has more on this. John and Anne had no children. There is a portrait of Anne McClintock (neé Lefroy) in the library at Lisnavagh, painted that August, and attributed to Mayer.

Curiously, the Lisnavagh archives include a letter from to Captain W.B. McClintock from Lady Grey (mother of George Grey, later Secretary of State for the Home Department and for the Colonies] in which she refers to the Lefroy marriage as follows: '... I sincerely hope it will prove a comfortable union and that the Lord will in mercy restore him to a Christian course of life and bring his wife also to the true fold. ...' One wonders just how much John had deviated from the Christian course.

THE PROCRIS DIARY (1829-1830)

In 2009 I commenced transcribing the Captain's private journal written when he was a lieutenant on board His Majesty's sloop Procris but I didn't get very far. In 2014, a gentleman called Derek Jago took it on with much better results. Derek's great-great-grandfather Richard Jago was assigned to Procris on 1st July 1828 as Master of the Fore-Top. The journal commenced in Cork Harbour on 1st Nov 1829 when Captain Paget is told to make for the Mediterranean. It includes Lieutenant McClintock's purhcase of a number of nautical paintings by Mathieu-Antoine Roux while stopping in Marseilles. The diary finishes in November 1830. You can read the entire transcipt at this link.

 

 

With thanks to Michael Purcell, William McClintock Bunbury, Drek Jago, Sue Clements, Anthony Gary Brown and others.

 

Articles