Turtle Bunbury

Writer and Historian

 
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THE DOCKLANDS - NORTH WALL QUAY

'Dublin Docklands - An Urban Voyage is a work in progress, commissioned by the Dublin Docklands Development Authority, and due to be completed in the autumn of 2008. The following tale represents research I have undertaken for the project which may or may not be used in the final book.

THE NORTH WALL QUAY

Built to reclaim the lands of the North Lots from the tidal Liffey, the North Wall Quay was for many years the last call for many Irish emigrants bound for new life on board the various mailboats and steam packets that took off from here. Since the 1860s, the area has been used for railway freight yards and port facilities. With the expansion of the IFSC as far as Guild Street, the North Wall Quay is now undergoing extensive rejuvenation.

TO TAME A RIVER

Anyone trying to enter Dublin by ship before the 18th century faced a rough ride. Not the least of the hazards were the treacherous and unpredictable sandbanks at the mouth of the Liffey, created by the confluence of the river Dodder on the southside and the Tolka on the northside. Untold numbers of vessels had run aground upon these banks. In the early 18th century, the Ballast Office hatched a plan to tame the Liffey and deepen the river bed. They would build two huge restraining walls on its north and south shores. A third wall to the city’s north east would put manners on the Tolka. These became respectively known as the North Wall, the South Wall and the East Wall. The point where the North Wall and the East Wall meet was helpfully known as the Point, and this is where the Point Village stands today. The erection of these walls resulted in the reclamation of considerable land from Dublin Bay known as the North Lotts.

MEN AT WORK

The Ballast Office commenced the North Wall in about 1712, laying down 686 timber kishes filled with black stones and surmounted by gravel, shingle and mud dug out of the riverbed. These kishes were cubical cages of woven willow osiers, not unlike the steel-mesh gambions used to protect coastlines today. A second wall was built to the rear of these kishes during the 1720s with further filling material added. These works are said to have been carried out by Scotsmen who had been flooding into Ireland since a depression beset the Scottish economy in the 1690s. By 1728 Brooking’s map showed a massive wall running from present day Butt Bridge to a point roughly where the East Link Toll Bridge meets the North Wall. It then turned northwards along what is now East Wall Road to present day Luke Kelly Bridge.

START AGAIN

As Gandon noted when he began work on the Custom House in the 1780s, the original wall was shoddily built and a constant source of vexation to landowners in the area. In 1786, Francis Tunstall, the Ballast Board’s first inspector of works, proposed the demolition and reconstruction of the entire wall east of the Custom House. Over fifty years later, William Cubitt, one of the greatest civil engineers of the day, came up with much the same conclusion in a report on the North Wall’s deep-water berthage capabilities.

OTHER SOLUTIONS

In December 1810, The Times reported that ‘a dreadful fire’ had broken out in the North Wall. The Windmill and Corn Stores were ‘wholly consumed’ within five hours. The wall was again badly damaged by the great fire of 1833. But somehow, despite the fires and the poor workmanship of the original, the North Wall remained intact, patched together by endless repairs.The Ballast Board had side-stepped the lack of deep-water berthing opportunities when their engineer George Halpin created the ‘North Wall Basin’ (known as ‘Halpin’s Pool’) at the end of the quay (now part of the Alexandra Basin). However, between 1864 to 1869, the North Wall was finally and formidably rebuilt with the engineer Bindon Blood Stoney at the helm. Foundations were sunk to such depths that berths varying from 16 to 18 feet at low water became available alongside it.

THE NORTH WALL EXTENSION

By 1885, Stoney was hard at work on the 1.5 km North Wall Extension down to the Alex Basin, aided by the celebrated Diving Bell, Float and Shears. This extension contained berthage for the biggest four-masted ships. The new deep-water Alexandra Basin, opened and named for Edward VII’s Queen Alexandra, provided room for all contemporary docking and repair requirements. Also here were the Graving Dock, the Customs Watch House, the Hundred Ton Crane and the once prosperous ship-building yard of the Dublin Dockyard Company, established by Messrs. Walter Scott and Smillie.

THE VANISHING RIVER

Conntrary to Lord Ormonde’s instructions in the late 17th century, the city began to turn its back on the river again during the early 1900s. The waterfront along North Wall Quay comprised of a long row of wall-to-wall sheds, warehouses and wharves, almost all of them owned by steam-packet companies. All the great Irish railway companies had depots in the North Wall. Nearly all the passenger traffic and much of the goods traffic of Dublin Port carried on there. The steel and concrete Scherzer Bridges at either end of the quay added to the sense of industrial dominance. The only green oases in this landscape were provided by the L.N.W.R. Hotel and the Harbour Master’s garden.[1] Campion’s Pub was another welcome distraction. Walking down the North Wall Quay, you could quite easily forget that Dublin was on a river. Indeed, the only way to get to the Liffey was through these sheds. And that was the case whether you were a passenger awaiting a B&I ferry to England or a labourer unloading cargo onto a merchant ship. Knocking down that barrier and opening up the river was to be one of the first priorities of those in charge of regenerating the Custom House Docks from 1987.

THE NORTH WALL TODAY

Today the North Wall Quay presents an entirely new landscape. The Quay itself has been opened to the public and will soon boast two cutting edge bridge links with the southside in the shape of the Sean O’Casey Bridge (completed in 2005) and the Samuel Beckett Bridge (to be completed in 2010). Where once there were warehouses, ships and cranes the waterfront is now a skyline of contemporary glazed low-rise offices from CHQ to the Point Village. Amongst the biggest businesses here are A & L Goodbody (Scott Tallon Walker, 1999), Citigroup (STW, 2000), Commerzbank (STW, 2000) and AIG Insurance (Murray O’Laoire, 2000). The MV Cill Airne has been moored outside the Clarion Hotel since 2007.

[1] Cosgrave.

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